Six sigma JOB- Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manager

Job Description

Strong Quantitative and problem solving ability: Ability to conceptualize complex problems and develop an Analytical road map for them.

People Leadership: Ability to coach & mentor people

Demonstrates the ability to facilitate meetings to generate ideas and make key decisions

Creates a team environment of accountability and commitment for reaching project goals

Specific Competence (Desirable) Consulting / ‘Strategic Initiatives’ group / Lean Six Sigma experience Key Roles and Responsibilities:

Lead Quality Projects for the business, individually.

Identifying areas of significant Customer Business Impact and improvement opportunities therein and provide strategic direction & thought leadership

Focus on Process improvement and cost reduction for clients to deliver tangible benefits

Lead and Implement business process management system for new clients

Drive and Track Quality DNA – training, testing & certification, Lead any other analytics and productivity initiatives.

Coaching and Mentoring Process Owners and Team Members in DMAIC and Lean.

Salary: Not Disclosed by Recruiter
Industry: BPO / Call Centre / ITES
Functional Area: ITES, BPO, KPO, LPO, Customer Service, Operations
Role Category: Quality
Role: Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manager
Keyskills: Black Belt, Lean Six Sigma, Dmaic, Process Improvement. Quality Management. Six Sigma, Quality, Business Process Management, Cost Reduction, People Leadership, Problem Solving.

Benefits of Toyota Production System (TPS)

Toyota production system (TPS) is like a super charged Lean Six Sigma program. All the proven and intelligent methodologies of conventional TPS Six Sigma have been charged with immensely motivated team associates.

TPS is the outcome of such powerful Lean Six Sigma team associates sigma, which leads to high performance culture and lets employees to know their full strength. It also bestow creatively, while the firm gains from increased, profitability, market share, productivity and high customer satisfaction.

Toyota Motor Corporation created this Six Sigma system to offer best quality, low priced and shortest lead-time by eliminating wastes. Generally, TPS consists of two pillars such as Just-in-Time and Jidoka. People often illustrate it with the name House. TPS is improved and maintained through loops of consistent work and improved quality.

Elimination of Waste has several forms such as material, idle equipment, time, and inventory. Most organizations do waste about 70% to 90% of their existing resources. Hence, TPS emphasizes the detection of such waste followed by certain Six Sigma tools and systems to eliminate it.

Inventory is one such largest waste. It demolishes capital, become outdated and consumes both space as well as workforce. At times, it also hides other kinds of wastes. Almost each defect or difficulty makes a need of inventory. Thus, inventory is an outcome as well as evidence of overall manufacturing effectiveness.

TPS’s Six Sigma

Below discussed are some of the TPS’s (Toyota production system) Six Sigma strategies:

1. Decreased setup times: All setup procedures are wasteful, since they do not add any value and tie-up labor and equipment. By handling procedures, using carts and training employees to carry out their own setups, Toyota has managed to slash setup times from month to hours, and even minutes.

2. Minimum Production: Manufacturing things in bulk batches sometimes may lead to huge setup costs, capital cost, large inventories, unlimited lead times and huge defect costs. As Toyota has found this ideal method of minimum production to make setup inexpensive and short, now it has become possible for them to manufacture various things in smaller quantities.

3. Workers Empowerment and Involvement: Toyota ordered their employees to form teams and offered them the training and responsibility to carry out certain specialized tasks. Team members were also given the task to repair equipment and take care of internal factory work. Every team has a head, who also acts as one of the prospective employee in achieving specialized task assigned to them.

4. Dealers Participation: Toyota treats its dealers as company partner, as integral part of TPS (Toyota production system). Dealers are also well familiar with ways to decrease setup times, defects, inventories and machine breakdowns and take responsibility to render their best possible outcomes.


The Toyota Production System blends attitude, notion and specific techniques into a structured socio-technical Six Sigma system for manufacturing. Gradually, this Six Sigma system spread around Japan and finally to the West, and started gaining other names and variations. Toyota itself was not having any name for its manufacturing strategy until the 1970’s.

Just in Time, Stockless Production, World Class Manufacturing, Demand Flow Technology and several other terms are mostly the variations of Toyota’s Six Sigma system. Lean Manufacturing, given by James Womack, is a name that appears to sticking very firmly.

When everything has been well done, TPS fetches order of great improvements in inventory, material handling, scheduling, and customer satisfaction. The payoff to dealers and shareholders is important and well acknowledged.

The TPS’s Six Sigma system has been doing well for Toyota, its dealers, and several other companies. Often, Six Sigma is an ideal starting point, but is hardly a substitute for a personalized and well-throughout manufacturing strategy.

Use “Light” Lean Six Sigma When the Textbook Approach Is Not Possible

Practitioners cannot wait to use their newly acquired knowledge after they have finished Lean Six Sigma (LSS) training. They want to immediately apply the framework to their real-life projects. But what if, for numerous reasons, it is not possible to “go by the book”? In such cases, there are ways to break LSS down into pieces and make it accessible to everyone. Using the “light” approach may be the only option available; however, if used properly, the light approach can be the best approach.

When Does a Project Seem Undoable?

Depending on the environment, organization’s maturity, people and processes that must be dealt with, LSS practitioners may be in situations that prevent them from following a textbook project. These situations may include:

  • Lack of continuous improvement culture and awareness in the organization
  • Application of other methodologies which do not focus on improvement
  • Limited possibility to measure performance at no/little additional cost
  • Lack of sponsorship and senior management support for the project

Assuming one or more of the above elements are true, running a project can be a challenge. Not only can everything one has learned be viewed as a waste of potential and time, but a project may also be seen as too difficult to attempt. A simple way to turn these challenges into an opportunity is by extracting the maximum from the existing situation instead of fighting against it. A couple of examples demonstrate that using individual tools when they fit the purpose can be as rewarding as applying the whole framework – by the book.

Light LSS Example: Voice of Customer Applied to a Team

Every LSS training or guideline instructs to start a project by analyzing the voice of the customer (VOC). But what if there is no project and the practitioner does not interact with the end-product customer? There is a trick to adjust the VOC tool to help improve the organization.

Treat the SMEs as the customers. Let’s take the simplest scenario where one LSS expert is assigned to a team of SMEs attempting to improve their own processes. The objective here is three-fold:

  • Get the most valuable knowledge and advice from the experts.
  • Demonstrate that simple non-technical solutions can solve their problems.
  • Get the team involved and translate their ideas into improvements.

When it comes to implementing these principles, as with any customer feedback, the key is to establish a structured method for gathering, storing and reviewing the improvement ideas. The following are some tips that can assist in building a simple mechanism to manage a team’s improvement ideas:

  • Establish a repository for gathering the ideas and teach the team how to use it.
  • Define the RACI (responsible, accountable, consulted, informed) for submitting, reviewing and approving improvement ideas.
  • Set up a regular process for reviewing and approving new entries.
  • Enable a team to implement their own ideas (e.g., by freeing up 10 percent of their time).

With numerous “customers,” this process is more complicated; however, given team discipline and collaboration it can turn into success. The end goal should be for the team to become self-sufficient in improving their processes when the LSS expert is no longer available.

VOC is not the only instrument that teams can use by themselves. Other examples of useful tools that every team can use in everyday work include project management documents that bring structure to every initiative.

Light LSS Example: Project Documentation as the Basis for Every Initiative

Even if LSS is not used in everyday operations, a smart expert can still smuggle a few useful tools into the workplace. This is because every organization runs projects; all projects typically bring change and opportunities for improvement. As these tools are simple and universal, no matter what methodology an organization uses, LSS best practices around project management documentation can often be the first big win. This can apply to any initiative, starting with a local team project and finishing with a global organizational change. Here are some examples of tools that each person running a project should befriend:

  • RACI and governance structure: Any initiative (including team outdoor event) needs people responsible, people to be consulted and informed as well as sponsors. The bigger the project, the more complex the structure, but the basics should always be in place.
  • Project charter: Without specifying the problem, it is difficult to find the right solution. A well-written project charter helps resolve this issue and also serves as the perfect baseline document protecting the project manager against scope creep.
  • Project plan: Any project needs a schedule to keep everyone in check. Tools like MS Project and MS SharePoint are excellent in that respect, but can be considered too complex for small projects. In such cases, there is nothing preventing the team from using simpler tools like a flipchart or spreadsheet.
  • Communication plan: The tool that is often used for big projects can prove quite useful in any situation where multiple stakeholders are involved. And because communication in big organizations can be a challenge, giving it more structure is beneficial for all.

Light LSS Example: 5S in Everyday Operations

What if the LSS expert is assigned to a team that does not run any projects? One might argue that the space for improving their operations is limited. There is a tool, though, that can be applied in any circumstances and implemented by the team independently – 5S (sort, set in order, shine, standardize, sustain) only sounds like one tool, but it is by far one of the most helpful. Apart from the visible improvements 5S offers in each of the five phases of DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control), 5S offers plenty of opportunities to embed the continuous improvement mindset quickly and effectively. (Again, if it is not possible to use all the elements at once, fit-for-purpose is the most sensible approach to follow.) 

In operations like human resources, finance or outsourcing, some 5S techniques can be applied as successfully as in manufacturing. Good analogies for a service environment relate to virtual workplaces. Some examples include setting up document repositories and shared locations, standardizing service inputs or outputs, and keeping the PC workplace tidy.

  • Sort: The simplest task that can help one deal with a large number of documents is to identify the items that are not required and move them into a separate space. Archiving and versioning techniques can be useful here.
  • Set in order: This step establishes a correct place for different types of documents or records. One of the ways to address this step is to use an established naming convention and folder structure that makes the document repository user-friendly.
  • Shine: It is a good habit to apply the “shine” phase in an iterative manner by removing items that are too old, not valid, etc. As in any workplace, operating in a tidy environment results in better outcomes and higher employee satisfaction.
  • Standardize: Activities around standardization can be extremely helpful, especially for more complicated document repositories. If every folder needs to follow a more complex structure, it might be helpful to document the approach in a standard operating procedure or a README file posted in a visible place.
  • Sustain: Last but not least, in order to maintain that perfect state, there are a few practical methods to be used. Some tools include regular reviews with the SMEs, or retrospective sessions with the team. Both allow gathering feedback on whether the document structure is consistent, up-to-date and up to stakeholder expectations. 

Light LSS: Process Mapping and Procedures Used for Process Design

The previous examples demonstrate how to improve an existing process with little effort. But what if the process is not there yet? In such instances, the LSS expert might be asked to design and implement an activity that was not previously performed.

When establishing a new function, going through re-organization or simply starting a new activity, a couple of LSS tools can be utilized to help define and document the change taking place.

  • Supplier, input, process, output, customer (SIPOC): When defining any kind of activity for the first time, identifying inputs and outputs, or pointing at the real customer of the product or service can be a challenge. On the other hand, knowing these and having them documented can help in understanding the critical points of the process and focusing the effort there.
  • Process map: No matter how complex the activity, one picture tells more than several pages of documentation. For any activity that was not defined previously, drawing a process flow with the respective phases, steps and actors can prove invaluable. This approach is the simplest way of spotting bottlenecks or pain points, and being able to address them straight away.
  • Standard operating procedure (SOP): Even though an SOP is known in LSS circles as the file used to document an improved process, SOPs can and should be used for any kind of activity. Combined with the high-level process map, SOPs tell the whole story, help train new staff and make the process output repeatable.

Benefits of Light LSS

When the reality is different from what was taught during training, the choices are to give up or adjust one’s approach. By using a fit-for-purpose approach and simplifying the tools, it is easier to make the tools easier to remember and, therefore, encourage the staff to use them more often. Many small improvements have a big chance of translating into a continuous improvement culture for the whole organization.

Six sigma job- Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manager


Job Description

Job Description:
The Retail Business Service (RBS) Quality Manager Supports, coordinates and facilitates structured Quality improvement activities aligned to our business goals. He or she fosters a culture of Quality, providing thought leadership to and influencing change at all levels in the organization. This role reports to the QA- Operations manager. Is responsible for quality teams across Chennai node. Works with all levels of management within the organization worldwide.

The successful candidate for this role will be a fast, clear and independent thinker who is naturally curious about how things work, importance of Quality in any process, is metrics and number savvy, has an analytical mindset and has demonstrated leadership ability. This person will need an ability to see the big picture/ whole system and execute on grass root level to improve the overall RBS quality operations. Additionally, should show success in following- up and getting things done and have the ability to thrive in a fast- paced, customer- centric and ever changing environment. QA Manager will interact with different nodes to encourage participation and their support in cross node Kaizen events and will interact with their node counter parts to implement standard practices across all RBS nodes.

Key Responsibilities:
Facilitates the execution of the world wide RBS QA strategy through local management and support teams.
Update quality documentation and communicate to carry forward lessons learned from quality concerns
Introduce new systems and procedures where appropriate
Manage, coach and develop a high performing Quality System team that meets agreed objectives and which delivers best practice results, added value and continuous improvements
Oversees site project portfolio, assisting Kaizen Promotion Officers and individual project managers with execution and delivery of results.
Audits completed projects to verify sustained impact and partners with senior operations managers to validate impact.
Communicates across all levels on Operations and program progress.
Facilitates and participates in meetings as necessary to facilitate growth and network- wide parity.
Represent site s needs in other teams prioritization processes (e.g.

Salary: Not Disclosed by Recruiter
Industry: IT-Software / Software Services
Functional Area: IT Software – Other
Role Category: QA/Testing/Documentation
Role: Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manager
Keyskills: SQL Service, Analytical ,Minitab, Kaizen, Six sigma green belt, Improvement activities, Customer centric Written, communication, Quality documentation.


AM (voice Quality) (pcmm & CMMI Level 5 co.) (noida)

Job Description

1. Develop queries using Boolean and temporal logic to deliver the foundation for analysis to objectives agreed with the customer.
2. Perform analysis of query/call listening results in line with customer objectives to develop business cases.
3. Compile analysis results and create presentations.

Salary: INR Free cab Facility, Subsidized Meal and Mediclaim
Industry: BPO / Call Centre / ITES
Functional Area: ITES, BPO, KPO, LPO, Customer Service, Operations
Role Category: Back Office/Web/Transaction Processing
Role: Assistant Manager/Manager-(NonTechnical)
Keyskills: Voice, Quality, Six Sigma, lean, green belt, kaizen, assistant manager, team manager.

TRIZ – Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

If somebody thought that innovating was a piece of cake he was wrong. A lot of discussion has been focused on advice for organizations gearing up for change. An overwhelming number of discussions and newspaper articles force us to think how much time, effort and energy is being put into the issue of Innovation. A number of theories have been developed to explain the process and perspectives of Innovation. People with diametrically opposite perspectives advocate and explain applications of innovation in different industries. Most interestingly each manager, blogger, author, academician, professional writer or businessman has a different take on Innovation. In this context, it is important to learn about the pioneers of TRIZ and understand what their stand was on problem solving.

Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, known as TRIZ, was the brainchild of a Russian researcher, Generich Altshuller. Some of the interpretations of TRIZ, as explained by Altshuller and numerous researchers after him is surmised in the following discussion. Firstly, during extensive research, Altshuller learnt that it was easy to utilize the knowledge gained with respect to other problems to solve new and related problems. In other words, he realized that valuing prior research and looking at alternate applications of that research was beneficial for problem solving. Secondly, he advocated that the key to innovation lies in ‘thinking out of the box’. Scientists, researchers, engineers and project specialists become so involved with the problem of ‘reference’ on which they are working that they sometimes overlook evidence of similar research in parallel fields. In a way, they develop a ‘tunneled vision’ and ignore the patterns of similar research across different fields, technologies and interests. It is not only important to identify the problem in a broader perspective, but also to develop problem-solving skills by studying parallel innovative practices, not directly related to the field in question. Thirdly, his theory was based on the belief that innovation need not be random and always a ‘NEW’ idea! He proposed that the modern era researchers need not always come up with bright, unusual ideas as solutions. In a way, he supported systematic approach to problem solving and innovation rather than spontaneous, sporadic and random innovation. Fourthly, with specific reference to science and technology, Altshuller proposed that the evolution of technological breakthroughs and new product designs is governed by the laws of repetition; it can reduce the uncertainty of trial and error and have a more structured approach to problem solving.


The dynamics of industry demands new innovations every day to solve consumer needs. Think about any company: Dell, Microsoft, Yahoo!, Google, Cisco, Starbucks, OSH Home & Garden or Mc Donalds and there is one common observable string: how to deliver the best value to the consumer and how to innovate to keep ahead of competitors? How to keep the costs low and still be able to implement the best product designing techniques? How to reduce product design life cycles and change the business practice from ‘business-as-usual’ to ‘business-by-innovation’? The answer is that the conventional method of innovating (trial and error) has to evolve into systematic problem solving and innovation. In this context, TRIZ helps by concentrating on identifying repeatable patterns in technical designs, so that solutions to a problem can be reached by learning from unrelated/parallel streams of knowledge, without going into the trouble to start from scratch. And definitely, technology can help in this endeavor by managing knowledge and making vast databases easily accessible to one and all. Such efforts will help managers, engineers, product designers to innovate economically and realistically!

Six Sigma – Its Origin and Meaning

If you are on this page I assume you have heard about Six Sigma which is basically a methodology used to improve business. The main objective of Six Sigma is to implement a process, which systematically gets rid of inefficiency and defects. Basically, Six Sigma

uses a set of quality management methods of doing the above. This method uses statistical data and creates a special infrastructure of people, also called experts within the organization. Every Six Sigma project that is carried out as part of an organization follows a defined sequence and has financial targets that have already been quantified. All in all, Six Sigma is customer centric and its main objective is to deliver value, reliability as well as high performance to the customer. Today, Six Sigma is used as one of the major themes for Total Quality Management (TQM).

It was in the early 1980’s that Bill Smith at Motorola developed this concept in order to measure defects and improve overall quality. This original idea still forms the core of this methodology with a few more additions, which include improving process with regards to interaction and product design. General Electric (GE) was the first to use Six Sigma in its operations in order to reduce waste, improve the quality of the product and in turn save money. It is because of the success that GE enjoyed that people began implementing Six Sigma programs into their organizations. Today, companies the world over use Six Sigma to improve the processes, which help bring about positive changes in the organization. The name Six Sigma is derived from the bell curve used in statistics where one Sigma represents one standard deviation away from the mean. The defect rate is said to be extremely low when the process exhibits Six Sigma’s, where three are above the mean and three below. Of course if you are new to the whole concept, it is fine being content with the knowledge that Six Sigma involves measuring a process’ capability using statistics, rather than going into the details.

Like all processes, Six Sigma is also made up of two methodologies, which are DMAIC and DMADV or DFSS (Design for Six Sigma). The former is used to improve a process that is related to an existing business while the latter is used to create new process or product designs.


• Define the goals that will help improve the processes that are in sync with the enterprise strategy and customer demand.
• Measure the aspects of the ongoing process and accumulate data that is relevant to that.
• Analyze the data that has been accumulated and then verify it. Once that is done analyzing involves determining the relationships and attempting to ensure that every factor has been taken into consideration.
• Improve the process of data analysis with the help of new techniques.
• Control in order to check that any deviation from the target is corrected before they turn into defects. Control also involves setting up pilot runs in order to move on to production, establish the process, set up control mechanisms as well as monitor the entire process.


• Define the goals that meet the customer demands as well as the enterprise strategy.
• Measure as well as identify the characteristics that are Critical To Quality (CTQ’s), production and risks.
• Analyze so that new and better alternatives can be designed.
• Design the details and once that is done, optimize and plan for its verification. The designs phase may include the help of simulations.
• Verify the design and then set up pilot runs. Verification also involves implementing the production process and handing it over to the process owners.



Qualification Relevant exp Preferred Skills Position Objectives
Minimum Graduate
12 – 15 years of relevant experience – 14-20 yrs of overall experience F&A Domain expert- PTP, RTR or OTC
Excellent knowledge of tools and technology in the F&A Domain
Six Sigma Green Belt with good knowledge of Lean practices
Strong Knowledge of Quality Principles and Techniques essential
Needs to have worked in a BPO Capability/Operational Excellence (or similar) function
Strong communication and presentation skills 1. Drive Standardization projects with underlying technology drivers to improve
a. Productivity
b. Improve SLA performance
2. Interact with client/ internal stakeholders to drive and influence improvement objectives
3. Lead a global projects in building new tools to drive process led transformation
4. People manager for a team
5. Drives the OE program for a client/ clients in a site/ across sites

Salary: INR 22,50,000 – 37,50,000 P.A.
Industry: BPO / Call Centre / ITES
Functional Area: Analytics & Business Intelligence
Role Category: Senior Management
Role: Head/VP/GM – Analytics & BI
Keyskills: Six Sigma, OTC, Operations, People Management, Operational Excellence, Business Excellence, Green Belt, Presentation Skills.

Manager- Quality ((six Sigma Black Belt))

Job Description

Strong Quantitative and problem solving ability: Ability to conceptualize complex problems and develop an Analytical road map for them.

People Leadership: Ability to coach & mentor people

Demonstrates the ability to facilitate meetings to generate ideas and make key decisions

Creates a team environment of accountability and commitment for reaching project goals

Specific Competence (Desirable) Consulting / ‘Strategic Initiatives’ group / Lean Six Sigma experience Key Roles and Responsibilities:

Lead Quality Projects for the business, individually.

Identifying areas of significant Customer Business Impact and improvement opportunities therein and provide strategic direction & thought leadership

Focus on Process improvement and cost reduction for clients to deliver tangible benefits

Lead and Implement business process management system for new clients

Drive and Track Quality DNA – training, testing & certification, Lead any other analytics and productivity initiatives.

Coaching and Mentoring Process Owners and Team Members in DMAIC and Lean.

Salary: Not Disclosed by Recruiter
Industry: BPO / Call Centre / ITES
Functional Area: ITES, BPO, KPO, LPO, Customer Service, Operations
Role Category: Quality
Role: Quality Assurance/Quality Control Manager
Keyskills: Black Belt, Lean Six Sigma, Dmaic, Process Improvement, Quality Management, Six Sigma, Quality,Business Process Management, Cost Reduction, People Leadership, Problem Solving.

What is Ishikawa?

Ishikawa?” “It is a place in Japan,” was the prompt answer of a ninth grader. “That is interesting and quite true, but in the context of this Math class, let me help you understand that the Ishikawa I am mentioning here are diagrams that help us study ‘cause and effect’ relationships and are useful tool for solving problems.” The pupil was red in the face and thought that he was dumb to give that answer and figured that the teacher was not teaching them geography!

The teacher went on to explain the meaning and definition of Ishikawa Diagram.


The concept of an Ishikawa Diagram was pioneered by Kaoru Ishikawa, who contributed to the concept of Quality Management in Japan. In order to understand the importance or rationale of Ishikawa Diagram, it is a good idea to investigate what Quality Management is. Managing and maintaining quality of products and services is Quality Management. The seven famous quality tools proposed by him were: control chart, run chart, histogram, scatter diagram, Pareto chart, Ishikawa diagram and flowchart.


An Ishikawa diagram basically helps in understanding the ‘cause and effect’ relationship for solving a problem. It is a very helpful tool as it gives a pictorial representation of what is the cause of a problem or a phenomenon, what factors have a high/low impact to those problem/phenomena and how can the situation be resolved. The Ishikawa is drawn like a fishbone and helps a person to ‘see’ the causes and effects in a particular relationship. Obviously, demarcating solutions from problems is not an easy task. Let us take a look at the following two situations for understanding the need to have ‘pictures’ to solve a problem.

RCA Tool - Fishbone

Two Hypothetical Examples

Often, planning a party looks like an easy job. I have often heard people say,” How hard can it be to have a party?” Selecting a venue, making a guest list, planning food, working out the party themes, decorations, preparing goodie bags are just a few things that come to mind. It looks very straightforward and you do not realize the details unless you are fully involved in the process. If something goes wrong in that party, you keep wondering about the causes: Was it the food? Was it the venue? Was it the weather? Was it about the party games? Was it some other reason?

Another situation is related to a newspaper publisher. He notices that 3 of his major accounts (Car manufacturers), have stopped advertising with his paper. He is concerned about it and thinks randomly about the causes of this problem. Is his newspaper unable to give value to these Car manufacturers? Is his newspaper unable to reach to the target audience that wants to buy new cars? Are the competitors offering very low prices for placing advertisements in their newspapers? Is the quality of his paper declining in terms of editorial content, readership and promptness of reporting?

In both the above situations, there are some similarities. There is a cause and there is an effect. To deal with the effects, it is important to have holistic knowledge of all the contributing causes. An Ishikawa diagram helps (see picture above) to understand the complex inter-relationships of various contributing factors towards an issue/problem, as in the case of the newspaper publisher discussed above.
The Ishikawa diagram looks like a fishbone, and is popularly known as the ‘Fishbone Diagram’. Ideally, an Ishikawa diagram has an oval/rectangular box at the right hand side. This box is labeled with the problem to be studied/effect. There is a horizontal line (which can be visualized as the back bone) and a number of ‘bones’ (read causes) stemming out of it. There is a label for each one of these, and these are on the left hand side of the diagram. Each cause may have several contributing causes and these are marked by smaller lines. The graphical ease of Ishikawa Diagrams has made them very popular in analyzing day-to-day problems and significant variances across industries.